Function Points and Agile

I participated in an interesting conversation on Function Points and Agile with members of the software development group at a federal agency recently.  We, the DCG team, were explaining how we would start the process of measuring how much value they are delivering from software development by measuring how much functionality they are delivering in function points.  For an organization with immature metrics and, perhaps, lack of user trust, this starting point takes the question of productivity off of the table to allow us to move on to end user value delivery

All of the participants in the meeting quickly recognized the value of having a standard metric, function points, to measure the size of the functionality being delivered (and with SNAP – the non-functional size too) but I could see on their faces the sort of trusting disbelief that might be associated with my pulling a rabbit out of my bag.   Some of the participants in the meeting were not familiar with function points and asked for a quick, five minute explanation.  I get asked this a lot so here it is (before I get inundated with corrections – I know - this is an over-simplification):

Imagine a software application and draw an imaginary boundary around it in your mind to include all its functionality but not the functionality of other applications that it communicates with or draws information from.  Now consider the diagram below.

Function Points and Agile

From a user perspective, looking at the application from outside the application boundary, I can interact with the application in three ways, called transaction functions: external inputs (EIs), external outputs (Eos) and external inquiries (same as input and output but with no change of data or state - EQs).  From within the application, I can access data in two places – inside the application boundary or outside the application boundary.  My interactions with these files are the two types of data functions: internal logical files (ILFs) where data is stored within the application boundary and external interface files (EIFs) where data is stored outside our application boundary. 

Most of you will be able to easily imagine that these five types of user interaction with our application can be more or less complex.  If I want to produce a function point count, the next step is to consider the first of the transactions that the user wishes to perform on the application (as defined in the requirements, user stories or whatever) and to identify how many of each of the five function types is involved in the transaction and how complex that involvement is (low, average or high).  Predetermined rules govern the weights that apply to each function type based on the complexity of the function in this transaction.  With all this information gathered, we can calculate the number of function points using the simple table shown below.

Function Point Counting Weights

Type

 

Low

Avg

High

Total

EI

 

__ x 3 +

__ x 4 +

__ x 6 =

___

EO

 

__ x 4 +

__ x 5 +

__ x 7 =

___

EQ

 

__ x 3 +

__ x 4 +

__ x 6 =

___

ILF

 

__ x 7 +

__ x10 +

__ x15 =

___

EIF

 

__ x 5 +

__ x 7 +

__ x10 =

___

 

 

 

 

Total

____

 

One of the participants offered a very perceptive observation, “Isn’t this a lot of work for every user story in Agile?”  It could be.  In practice though, by the time a user story is defined and understood, the software problem has been decomposed to the point where identifying the FPA functions and complexities is fairly simple.  That said, we don’t recommend this for all agile team members.  Story points work fine for most agile teams.  Where function points (and SNAP) can and must be used for Agile is where there is a need to aggregate the delivered functionality (and non-functional elements) into higher level metrics  for reporting to management.  This level of function point analysis is often better done by a separate, central team rather than the agile team members themselves.

 

Written by Michael D. Harris at 15:17
Categories :

How can my organization know if our Agile transformation is successful?

Scope of Report

It is commonly accepted that most organizations today have moved, are moving, or are evaluating a move toward the use of the Agile methodology. This report considers: (a) why the move to Agile; (b) what it means to adopt the Agile methodology to incur a transformation; (c) how to measure to know if your transformation is successful; and (d) how to ensure that the effects of the transformation are continued.

Why the move to Agile?

An IT organization has certain responsibilities that relate directly to their business client and the rest of the organization. From a business perspective, there are five (5) core goals for any IT team.

  1. Effectively manage workflow

  2. Proactively manage end user expectations

  3. Accurately plan, budget and forecast deliveries

  4. Accurately estimate deliverables

  5. Show value to the organization and the client

Agile, when properly adopted, has been shown to be an effective development method that addresses each of these five goals. As with any new business strategy, the move to Agile would be an attempt to optimize business efficiencies that affect the bottom line and the client-supplier relationship.

What is Agile transformation?

Tom Cagley has suggested that a transformation is a “complete or major change in someone's or something's appearance, form, etc.”; in other words, a changeover, metamorphosis, transfiguration, or conversion. Transformation “evokes a long-term change program that will result in a large-scale, strategic change impacting a whole organization (or at least a significant part)”. For Agile, it means fostering an environment of teamwork, trust, and open communication to facilitate continuous or frequent delivery of working software.

When an organization embraces such a change, it typically has gone through several stages. First, discovery -- a realization of organization needs and how you will attempt to fulfill the needs through a process solution. This is also characterized by knowledge gathering and process analysis. Secondly, proof-of-concept coordination through the organization to solicit sponsors and stakeholders, and assign participants to test the solution. This is executed through a pilot program, or a sampling of teams to use Agile, to generate interest and enthusiasm. Using the lessons learned, and positive and negative feedback, the organization then moves to definition, a more structured approach to implementing Agile. The last phase is institutionalization, in which the transformation is complete, and Agile is used throughout the organizational IT community. This is exemplified as not just a practice, but a ‘core foundation’ based upon innovation and business value.

Do we only start to measure when institutionalization occurs, or do we measure through all the process steps to realize when we have arrived at transformation? Obviously, the answer is that we implement metrics as the process evolves to be able to measure process outcomes, adjust the implementation as necessary, continuing to progress until the goal is reached.

What then do we measure to gauge transformation?

Scrum is a common approach to implement Agile project management. Other Agile and Lean frameworks include Extreme Programing (XP), Crystal, and Scaled Agile Framework Enterprise to name a few. The measures and metrics mentioned in this paper can be applied to most if not all.

There are several key metrics that are used to measure the Scrum environment. To review the terms and the process, the following is the framework which is being measured.

  • A product owner creates a prioritized requirement list called a product backlog.
  • During sprint planning, the team pulls a subset from the product backlog to accomplish in a single sprint.
  • The team decides how to implement the features that are represented in the subset.
  • The team has to complete the work in a 1-4 (2 weeks being typical) week sprint.
  • The team meets each day to assess its progress (daily Scrum or Stand-up).
  • During the sprint, the Scrum Master facilitates delivery of value.
  • By the end of the sprint, the features (work performed) meet the definition of done and are ready for delivery.
  • At the end of the sprint, the team engages in a sprint review and retrospective.
  • For the next sprint, the team chooses another subset of the product backlog and the cycle begins again.

The following are the recommended metrics based upon process measurement within that framework. All of them imply that there are organizational targets that once met would support the transformation.

1. Velocity and Productivity

According to the Scrum Alliance: “Velocity is how much product backlog effort a team can handle in one sprint. This can be estimated by using the historical data generated in previous sprints, assuming the team composition and sprint duration are kept constant. Once established, velocity can be used to plan projects and forecast releases.”

Velocity is a measure of throughput - an indication of how much, on average, a particular team can accomplish within a time box. Velocity can be gauged by the number of user stories delivered in a sprint, by the number of story points delivered in a sprint, or by the number of function points delivered in a sprint. Since user stories are not generally considered equal in complexity or time to develop, they have too much variability to be a reliable measure. Story points are subjective and are generally only consistent within a stable team. Again there may be too much variability to measure at an organization level, or across teams.

While story points provide the micro view within teams, we need some way to measure the macro view across multiple teams. Function points can be used at the inception of the project to size the backlog, to determine the deliverability of the minimum viable product and to capture actual size at completion. This allows a quantitative view of volatility. In addition, function points are a rules based measure of size, therefore, can be applied consistently and are useful for standardizing velocity or productivity. Productivity is size/effort, expressed as function points delivered per FTE or team member. Using function points as a basis for size, an organization can compare performance within dynamic teams and to the industry through the use of agile benchmark data.

2. Running Tested Features (RTF)

In general terms, the Running Tested Features (RTF) metric reflects “how many high-risk and high-business- value working features were delivered for deployment. RTF, counts the features delivered for deployment denominated per dollar of investment. The idea is to measure, at every moment in the project, how many features/stories pass all their (automated) acceptance tests and are known to be working”. The two components are time (daily) and the number of running, tested features ready for delivery to the business client. This metric is often used in environments where operations or production environments are “owned” by separate organizations (often true in DoD and Government environments).

3. Burn down/Burn up charts

According to Wikipedia, “A burn down chart is a graphical representation of work left to do versus time. The outstanding work (or backlog) is often on the vertical axis, with time along the horizontal. That is, it is a run chart of outstanding work. It is useful for predicting when all of the work will be completed.”

A burn up chart tracks progress towards a project's completion. In the simplest form, there are two lines on the chart. The vertical axis is amount of work, and is measured in units customized to your own project. Some common units are number of tasks, estimated hours, user stories or story points. The horizontal axis is time, usually measured in days.

These charts can allow you to identify issues (e.g. scope creep) so adjustments can be made early in the cycle. They are also effective tools for communicating with clients and management. The advantage of a burn up chart over a burn down chart is the inclusion of the scope line. It also allows you to visualize a more realistic completion date for the project, by extending a trend line from the scope as well as the completion line. Where the two trend lines meet is the estimated time of completion.

4. Technical Debt

Technical debt is a measure of the corners cut when developing a functionality (e.g. to prove that the functionality can be implemented and is desirable) the code may be written without full error trapping. As technical debt increases, it can become harder to add new features because of constraints imposed by previous poor coding. The measurement of technical debt was introduced in parallel with Extreme Programming (XP) which introduced the concept of “refactoring” or regularly revisiting inefficient or hard to maintain code to implement improvements. XP builds in refactoring, restructuring and improving the code as part of the development process. Technical debt is typically measured using code scanners which use proprietary algorithms to generate a metric based on the number of best practice rules that a particular piece of code infringes.

5. Defect Removal Effectiveness (DRE) and Defect Escape Rate (DER)

Measuring quality has always been a key metric, regardless of the life cycle methodology. The two key metrics in this area measure the ability to remove defects prior to release where:

The question usually arises over the time frame for a ‘release’. Quite simply, it depends on your delivery schedule – if you do a real release every 2 weeks, then that may be your measure of time. It is important to be consistent. As with any defect measurement, you will have to decide what priority defects are considered and are they all treated equally in the equation.

6. Work Allocation

There are three team metrics which can be used to support the outcomes of other metrics (cause and effect). The organization makes a sizable investment in building a solid cross-functional team with the right expertise for the product development. To protect the investment there is a key focus on building core product teams with deep product and technology knowledge. Rotating team members reduces the team scalability as continuity is constantly broken between releases. The following metrics are mainly targeted to gauge impact of team assignments, team changes between releases, and how the time is actually used – all which can affect delivery and costs:

1) Team utilization is quantified by the Team Utilization Quotient (TUQ). TUQ = Average time spent by team on the project

Example: Utilization is 10 resources for 5 months project.
- 4 resources joined in the beginning
- 2 resources joined after 2.5 months (50% project left)
- 4 resources joined in the last month of the project (25% project left)

TUQ = {(4*1)+(2*.5)+(4*.25)}/10 = .60 = 60%

2) Team scalability is quantified by the Team Scalability Quotient (TSQ): TSQ = % of the team retained from the previous release

In a TUQ example, we built a team of 10 people. The team had low utilization because of team assignments. Assuming the team is ready to take on next the version of the product, if you replace half of the team members with newer members to work on the new product release it reduces team scalability by 50%.

The third team metric is Work Allocation. This is a simple chart showing what percentage of available time was spent across all work categories for the sprint. Time activities should not only consider development activities but must include the time spent with clients, customers and stakeholders. In Agile, which fosters a cooperative environment, time needed for communication and feedback is as important as the time to code and test.

The use of these metrics should encourage resource managers, Scrum masters and Scrum coaches, to carefully consider how time and resource allocation impacts team efficiency and scalability. The transformation of the organization is from hero building to team building, and if you want to gain a fair ROI, you will invest in developing cross-functional teams. Obviously, disrupting teams will not generate the delivery responses you seek. Conversely, as team dynamics are fostered and improve, so will velocity.

7. Customer Satisfaction and Team Satisfaction

Last but certainly not least, one of the measures which is highly revealing of performance is customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction answers the question of whether the client is happy with the delivery, quality and costs of the functionality being delivered. Satisfaction provides a view into how the team is perceived by the clients.

Team satisfaction measures how the team is affected by agile adoption. Agile transformation provides an environment that values technical innovation, collaboration, teamwork, and open and honest communication which yields higher team satisfaction. Team satisfaction is positively correlated to productivity. Team satisfaction can be an indicator of how well the organization has implemented Agile.

How do you know that the effects of the transformation will continue?

The most common answer is “you don’t know for sure”. As a matter of record, experience has shown us that without continued measurement and adequate coaching, teams fall into entropy and lose efficiencies. A measurement feedback model should be in place to monitor performance levels, to know when to get coaching and how to address process improvements as needed.

At any point in the transformation, an independent assessment may be in order to determine where you are in comparison to where you want to be. Feedback from an assessment is critical for developing a fact-based plan for improvement.

Conclusion

The journey to transformation involves a cultural organizational change which can be thoroughly measured using common Agile metrics. The efficiencies of the new Agile environment can be quantified, maintained and improved through the use of a continuous measurement framework and periodic independent assessments.

References

SPAMCAST, Tom Cagley. Nov 2015. So You Want A Transformation! https://tcagley.wordpress.com/2015/11/10/so-you-want-a-transformation/ Agile Metrics: Running Tested Features, 9 June 2014, https://www.scrumalliance.org/community/articles/2014/june/agile-metrics-(1).

Wikipedia Burn down chart https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burn_down_chart.
Metrics Minute: Burn-Up Chart, Tom Cagley. https://tcagley.wordpress.com/?s=burn+up

Metrics Minute: Burn-Down Chart, Tom Cagley. https://tcagley.wordpress.com/?s=burn+down

Clarios Technology: What is a burnup chart?,http://www.clariostechnology.com/productivity/blog/whatisaburnupchart
Technopedia: Technical Debt, https://www.techopedia.com/definition/27913/technical-debt
XBOSOFT: Defect Removal Effectiveness Agile Testing Webinar Q&A, https://xbosoft.com/defect-removal-effectiveness-agile-testing-qa/.
Agile Helpline: Agile Team's Efficiency in Various Resource Allocation Models. http://www.agilehelpline.com/2011/05/agile-team-efficiency-in- various.html
DCG Software Value. Webinar: Agile Metrics What, When, How, David Herron. Nov. 2015.

Written by Default at 05:00
Categories :

Daily Stand-Up Meetings for Distributed Teams

Distributed Agile teams require a different level of care than a co-located team in order to ensure that they are as effective as possible. This is even more true for a team that is working through their forming-storming-norming process. Core Agile concepts are the team and communication, and these are key for the success of distributed Agile teams. Daily stand-up meetings are one of the most important communication tools for teams using scrum or other Agile/Lean frameworks, so it’s important that they function properly.

Here are some tips for making daily stand-ups work for distributed teams:

  1. Deal with the time zone issue. There are two primary options to deal with time zones. The first is to keep the team members within three or four time zones of each other. Given typical sourcing options, this tends to be difficult. A second option is to rotate the time for the stand-up meeting from sprint to sprint, so that everyone loses a similar amount of sleep (share the pain). One solution for when distributed teams can’t overlap is to have one team member (rotate) stay late or come in early to overlap work times.
  2. Identify and attack blockers between stand-ups. Typically, on distributed teams, all parties do not work at the same time. Team members should be counseled to communicate blockers to the team as soon as they are discovered, so that something discovered late in the day in one time zone does not affect the team in a different time zone (where they might just be starting to work). One group I worked with had stand-ups twice each day (at the beginning of the day and at the end of the day) to ensure continuous communication.
  3. Push status outside of the stand-up. A solution suggested by Matt Hauser is to have the team answer the classic three questions (What did you do yesterday? What will you do today? Is there anything blocking your progress?) on a WIKI or similar shared document for everyone on the team to read before the stand-up meeting. This helps focus the meeting on planning or dealing with issues.
  4. Vary the question set being asked. The process of varying the question set for each meeting keeps the team focused on communication rather than giving a memorized speech. For example, ask:
    1. Is anyone stuck?
    2. Does anyone need help?
    3. What did not get competed yesterday?
    4. Is there anything everyone should know?

This technique can be used for non-distributed teams as well.

  1. Ensure that everyone is standing. This is code for making sure that everyone is paying attention and staying focused. Standing is just one technique for helping team members stay focused. Other tips include banning cell phones and side conversations.
  2. Make sure the meeting stays “crisp.” Stand-up meetings by definition are short and to the point. The team needs to ensure that the meeting stays as disciplined as possible. All team members should show up on time and be prepared to discuss their role in the project. Discussion must include the willingness to ask for help and to provide help to team members.
  3. Use a physical status wall. While the term “distributed” screams tool usage, using a physical wall helps to focus the team. The simplicity of a physical wall takes the complexity of tool usage off the table, so that the focus can be on communication. Use of a physical wall in a distributed environment means using video to show the act of someone on the team physically moving tasks on the wall (after the fact a picture can be provided to the team). If video is not available, use a tool that everyone has access to. Keep tools as simple as possible.
  4. Don’t stop doing stand-ups. Stand-up meetings are a critical communication and planning event; not doing stand-ups for a distributed team is an indicator that the organization should go back to project manager/plan-based methods.

Like any other distributed team meeting, having good telecommunication/video tools is not only important, it is a prerequisite. If team members can’t hear each other, they cannot communicate.

Stand-ups are nearly ubiquitous in Agile. However, despite their simplicity, the added complexity of distributed teams can cause problems. The whole team is responsible for making the stand-up meetings work. While the scrum master may take the lead in insuring the logistics are right or to facilitate the session when needed, everyone needs to play a role.

Tom Cagley
VP of Consulting & Agile Practice Lead

 

 

Written by Tom Cagley at 05:00
Categories :

Measuring Software Value Using a Team Health Assessment

AgilityHealthSoftware development is a team effort. Agile software development, in particular, depends on a high level of communication between team members. In order to be able to improve the business value they are delivering, it is important that the software development teams conduct regular self-assessments. By taking the time to conduct an in-depth assessment of the key areas that impact team performance and health, an organization can make modifications to their processes to enable continual improvement that can lead to increased business value. 

In Agile, teams typically rely on sprint retrospectives to analyze their performance for continuous improvement. The challenge is that these events are team- and sprint-specific and often become wasteful ceremonies in that they don’t add any new value. 

It is common for the team to reach a point where they have discussed and fixed the things they can fix and the things they can’t fix require organizational intervention, which is outside their span of control. It is easy – and probably correct – for teams in this situation to conclude that sprint retrospectives should be abandoned because, from a lean perspective, they are not adding value and so represent waste to be removed.    

Over the years, our team has leveraged the AgilityHealth℠ Radar (AHR) TeamHealth Assessment as an event to review team dynamics on a quarterly basis. This structured, facilitated event is an opportunity for a more strategic review than the sprint retrospective typically allows..

There are five vital areas that can impact the health of an Agile team: Clarity, Performance, Leadership, Culture, and Foundation. Each should be carefully evaluated to help the team identify their strengths, areas of improvements and top impediments to growth. From there, a growth plan outlining the target outcomes for the following few months can be developed.

The true value of an assessment like this comes from the open and honest conversations that take place enabling the team to evaluate their performance and outcomes and continually improve their processes for the future.    

Does your software development team regularly assess the team’s performance and make adjustments for future growth?  If so, is there a specific methodology your organization uses?


Mike Harris
CEO

Written by Michael D. Harris at 10:09
Categories :

How to Count Function Points from User Stories

I was recently involved in a consulting engagement where Agile methodologies were being implemented with User Stories as the documentation standard. The organization had used function points (FPs) for years on their waterfall projects and were wondering if they could use them for their Agile methodology – and if User Stories would be a good input into the FP counting process. The answer I provided was a resounding “YES.” Having User Stories is actually a huge advantage to counting FPs, especially early in the lifecycle, because User Stories are typically focused on the user perspective, just like FPs.

The only difficulty in using FPs in Agile methodologies is determining what to count and when to count. As with any metric, this always goes back to the purpose. For example, if you want to know the size of the final delivered product, then you count the FPs at the end of the project. If you want to estimate effort for a Sprint or Program Increment (PI), then you need to count at the beginning of the Sprint or PI.  The key is defining the purpose early in order to have access to what you need at the time of data collection.

When actually counting FPs from User Stories, there are a few tips that help with the process. Depending on the level of the User Stories, more questions or assumptions may be needed to get to an accurate FP count. There are also key words used in User Stories that may help identify FP components (e.g. Maintain, Report, Enter, Select). Often User Stories equate to transactional functions in FPs, so it is important for the FP analyst to identify data functions as they go along.

More tips and advice, including real-life examples, will be provided in my upcoming webinar, “Counting Function Points from User Stories,” taking place on Wednesday September 28, 2016 at 12:00 pm EST. Please register here. If you have any questions before the webinar, just leave a comment and I’ll be sure to address them during the presentation.

Lori Limbacher
Estimation Specialist; Certified Function Point Specialist (CFPS)

Written by Lori Limbacher at 05:00
Categories :

"It's frustrating that there are so many failed software projects when I know from personal experience that it's possible to do so much better - and we can help." 
- Mike Harris, DCG President

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